A networking cable is a transmission medium through which data flow from source to destination. Data is transmitted in the form of signals through these cables. These signals are propagated from one device to another through a transmission medium. A few types of networking cable are as flows:
The Twisted pair cables
The twisted pair cable contains two wires that use copper as a conductor. These wires have plastic insulation and are twisted.
The main advantage of the twisted pair cable is the both wires are equally affected by external impacts and influences. This means, if any wire carries unwanted signal than the different between signals in the two wire are canceled. The cable wires in the twisted pair cable are twisted to provide protection against crosstalk and noise. The twisted pair cables are used for voice and data communication.
The twisted pair cable is of two types- shielded twisted pair cable (STP) and unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
STP is created by IBM. This types of twisted pair cable contains two pair of twisted wired. In it has a metal shield covering each pair of insulated cable wires. This type of shielding protects the cables from external electromagnetic interference and crosstalk.
UTP is the most commonly used twisted pair cable in communication. It is used in Ethernet networks and telephone systems. The UTP cable is easy to install and the installation charge are cheap.
The Coaxial Cable
The coaxial cable contains two conductors. One is the inner conductor made of solid copper (also called the core conductor) and the other is the outer conductor. The outer conductor serves as a shield against noise. There is dielectric insulator between these conductors. Also the whole cable is covered with a plastic jack. The coaxial cable can carry signals of higher frequency range than twisted pair cables. Coaxial cables are used in cable TV networks and traditional Ethernet LANs.
The Fiber-optic cable
The fiber-optic cable is made of glass or plastic. The signal propagates in the form of light through this cable. A cladding of glass or plastic surrounds the inner core. The fiber-optic cable is capable of carrying signals of greater bandwidth then the metallic cables. Due to greater bandwidth, these cables can carry more data in comparison to other cable types. Moreover, fiber-optic cables are thinner and lighter than metallic cable. The main disadvantage of cable is that it is much more expensive to install.