Electric circuit is the path through which electricity flows. The path through which electricity flows should start and end at the same point. There can be two types of electric circuits, open circuit and close circuit. The electric circuit in which a part is detached or disordered so that the current cannot flow is called an open circuit. The circuit in which the path is complete and forms a loop that allows complete flow of current is called a closed circuit. The following are the basic components of electrical circuit that are used in PCs:
Resistor: It is the basic electronic component of a circuit, which is used to limit or oppose the flow of current within the circuit. Capacitor: It is a component of the electric circuit and is used to store energy in the form electrostatic field. It is also used to regulate the voltages of the circuit.
Transistor: It is a device that can regulate current or voltage, and acts as a switch for electronic signal. It is also used to create logic gates. It consists of three semiconductor switches that can carry current.
Insulator: It is the material that does not conduct electric current or heat. It restricts the transfer of heat and electricity. Examples of insulator may include rubber, wood, plastic, etc. It is generally used as a flexible coating on electric wires and cables to prevent short circuit or electric shocks.
Fuse: It is an electrical safety device. It is designed in such a way that the wire in fuse will melt when the flow of current is more than a certain level.
Diode: It is an electric component which can conduct the electric current in one direction. It is often used with power supply of the computer system in order to protect the components of the computer. The various characteristics of electric supply can be measured as:
Voltage: It is the potential difference of charge between the two points of electric field. It is measured in Volts (V).
Current: It is the rate of flow of electrons in the circuit. It is measured in Ampere (A). There can be two types of electric currents, Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC). Direct Current (DC) flows in one direction, i.e., from positive terminal to negative terminal. In Alternating Current (AC), the current flows in both directions, i.e., from positive terminal to negative terminal as well as from negative terminal to positive terminal.
Resistance: It is the tendency of the material to resist the flow of current. When the resistance is higher, the flow of current becomes lower, and when the resistance is lower, the flow of current becomes higher. It is measured in Ohms (Ω).
Power: It is the rate at which electricity is consumed in an electric circuit. It is measured in Watts (W).
Energy: It is the amount of power that is consumed by a device with respect to time It is measure in Watt/hour or kilowatt/hour