- Q1) What do you mean by Ethical Hacking?Ethical hacking is a term used for identifying the hacking threat done by an individual or company to help know the potential threats on any network or computer. Ethical hackers are given permission to hack the system by the product owner so that identifying the weakness is made easy. The weakness can be fixed later.
Q2) Who is a Hacker?
Answer: A hacker is a person who exploits the weakness and shortfalls in a computer system or network. This process can contain engaging in illegal activities like stealing private information, accessing and altering network configuration, sabotaging the user interface of the computer OS.
Q3) What is Ethical Hacking?
Answer: Ethical hacking is the process of intruding a network or a system to identify the threats or vulnerabilities present in them. This process enables us to fix the weaker areas of the systems or network in order to protect them from persons who try to attack them.
Q4) What are the different types of Hackers?
Answer:In the process of hacking, there are many types of hackers and ways of doing it. Below are some of them:
- White Hat Hackers
- Black Hat Hackers
- Grey Hat Hackers
- Blue Hat Hackers
- Elite Hackers
- Intelligence Agencies
- Organized Crime.
Q5) What are the steps performed by Hackers to hack a System or Network?
Answer: The steps performed by hackers to intrude systems or network are as follows:
- Reconnaissance: In this process, the hacker tries to gather user information and finds weak spots if present.
- Scanning and Enumeration: In this process, the hacker uses the gathered information to examine and test the network.
- Gaining Access: After successfully completing the first and second phases, the hacker has complete access to the System and Network.
- Maintaining the Access: As the hacker has breached your security access in the previous stage, he now tries to install some scripts and sees that he has total access to the computer in the future.
- Clearing Tracks: In this stage, the hacker tries to clear all the tracks and tries to escape from getting detected by security personnel.
Q6) What the various sniffing tools available?
Answer: There are many sniffing tools available, all have their own features of gathering information and analyzing traffic. Some of the commonly used tools are listed below:
- MSN Sniffer
Q7) What is Spoofing?
Answer: Spoofing is the process of making communication by hiding the identity and acting as a trusted source. It is used to gain access to the target system and used to spread malware through harmful attachments or infected links. Spoofing can be done in many ways like:
- Phone calls
- IP address
- Domain Name System(DNS)
Q8) What is Phishing?
Answer: Phishing involves a process of contacting the target user by email, phone or text message and gathering sensitive information like credit card details, passwords, etc.
Q9) What is DDoS Attack?
Answer: “DDoS” or “Distributed Denial of Service” is explained as a malicious attempt to interrupt regular traffic of a targeted server or network by profusing the target with a flood of internet traffic.
Q10) What are the types of DDoS attacks?
Answer: DDoS attacks are mainly of three types, they are:
- Application Layer Attacks
- Protocol Attacks
- Volumetric Attacks
Q11) What is SQL injection?
Answer: SQL injections is a web hacking technique used to destroy a database. It executes malicious SQL statements and controls a database server behind a web application. Hackers make use of these statements to bypass the security measures of the application.
Q12) What is the difference between Vulnerability Scanning and Penetration testing?
Answer: Both penetration testing and vulnerability scanning are powerful tools for monitoring and improving information security. Let’s see the difference between them:
Vulnerability Scanning Penetration Testing This is an automated test This is a manual test conducted by a security professional Detects and reports Vulnerabilities Exploits Vulnerabilities and determines the type of access This is an instructive method This is a non-instructive method Need to be done continuously Usually done once a year
Q13) What is Footprinting?
Answer: Footprinting is a process of gathering user data and finding ways to penetrate a target system. A hacker tries to collects all the information about the organization, host, network and people before intruding a network or a system.
Q14) What is Network Enumeration?
Answer: Extracting usernames, network resources, machine names and services from a system is known as Network Enumeration. This stage is crucial for an attacker to send direct queries and gain more information about the target by creating an active connection to the system.
Q15) What are the different types of penetration testing tools?
Answer: Accessing the security of IT systems is carried out by penetration testing. Here are some of the important tools to perform it:
- Burp Suite
Q16) Why hackers use a keylogger?
Answer: Keylogger is a basic tool used by software companies to troubleshoot and check if there are any technical problems on their network or systems. But, hackers use these keyloggers to track the keystrokes of the user and gain access to their sensitive information.
Q17) What is RAnsweromware?
Answer: RAnsweromware is a type of malware, which restricts users from accessing their personal files or system and demands a ransom to regain access to them. Depending on the severity of the attack ransomware is categorized into three types, they are:
- Screen lockers
- Encrypting ransomware
Q18) What is Cryptojacking?
Answer: Malicious crypto mining or Cryptojacking is a type of online threat which uses the machine resources to mine forms of digital money known as cryptocurrency. This process can be carried out on a mobile device or on a computer.
Q19) How to protect yourself from getting hacked?
Answer: There are many ways to protect your personal computer from getting hacked, some of the important ones are listed below:
- Try to update your OS frequently for security updates to stay protected from hackers.
- Format all the devices which you plan to sell as there is a chance of information getting into other hands.
- Secure your wifi with a password and do not let it be open to others.
- Choose your security Answerwers creatively.
- Choose a smart way of emailing as the phishing campaigns are still live.
- Keep your sensitive information away from the cloud.
Q20) What is Adware?
Answer: Adware is a type of unwanted software created to show advertisements automatically onto your desktop or mobile screens. These appear mostly while using a web browser on a computer system or a mobile.
Q21) What is Data Breach?
Answer: Data breach comes under the process of a Cyberattack that enables cybercriminals to get unauthorized entry to a computer or a network. This allows them to steal private, confidential, sensitive and financial data of customers or existing users.
Most common attacks followed by cybercriminals are:
- Misconfigured or Broken access controls.
Q22) What is MIB?
Answer: Management Information Base(MIB) is a group of network objects which are manageable. These objects are a logical form of Physical networking components which are Simple Network Management Protocol(SNMP) Enabled. MIB’s store information about software versions, available storage disk space, IP address or port number.
Q23) What are different types of password cracking techniques?
Answer: There are mainly five types of password cracking techniques, they are:
- Hybrid attack
- Rainbow table attack
- Brute Force attack
- Syllable attack
- Rule attack
Q24) What are the different types of spoofing?
Answer: Different types of Spoofing attacks are:
- IP Spoofing Attack.
- DNS Spoofing Attack.
- Media Access Control (MAC)
- ARP Spoofing Attack.
Q25) What is Cowpatty?
Answer: Cowpatty is reliant on C-language which is used to run a brute-force dictionary attack against protected wi-fi protocols such as WPA-PSK and audit pre-shared WPA keys.
Q26) What are the best programming languages for Hacking?
Answer: Best programming languages useful for ethical hacking are:
- C- language
Q27) What is a Script kiddie?
Answer: A script kiddie is someone who lacks basic skills of programming knowledge and makes use of simple software to perform an attack on a computer.
Q28) What is XSS or Cross-Site Scripting?
Q29) What are an SSL session and SSL connection?
Answer: Secured Socket Layer(SSL) is a peer to peer communication system in which each connection is related to one SSL session. Whereas, an SSL session is defined as a link between the client and server basically created by the handshake protocol.
Q30) List some components used in SSL?
Answer: SSL is used for providing secure connection between server and a browser. Here are some of the components used in SSL:
- Change Cipher Spec
- Handshake protocol
- SSL record protocol
- Encryption Algorithms.
Q31) Define Virus.
Answer: It is a malicious program which can copying itself and cause some destruction to the user, such as corrupting the system or destroying data.
Q32) What is meant by Malware?
Answer: All form of viruses are referred with a generic term Malware which is malicious which executes without proper consent of the user or administrator.
Q33) What is Adware?
Answer: Adware is type of malware that will load and display some online or offline Ads in your computer system.
Q34) Define Spyware.
Answer: Spyware is a type of malware that will be used to spy an individual or an organization by the way of accessing the whole system, specific files from the file system, camera, voice or keylogging.
Q35) Define Worms.
Answer: A worm is a self-duplicating malware that keeps on replicating inside the system as well as in a network.
Q36) What is meant by Vulnerability?
Answer: A vulnerability is a hole or threat in a system or software which allows a hacker to exploit and steal information or affecting business continuity.
Q37) Define Exploit.
Answer: The act of taking advantage of the vulnerability and successfully hacking or compromising a vulnerable system or network and gaining its access or files.
Q38) What is a Threat?
Answer: A threat is a potential risk or danger that can exploit a vulnerability existing in the system or network.
Q39) Define Attack.
Answer: Attack is the act of scanning the vulnerability and exploiting it to gain access to the target system/software/file.
Q40) What is meant by Back door?
Answer: Back door is the act of creating and maintaining unauthorized access to the compromised systems.
Q41) What is a Bot?
Answer: A bot is a script/program/software created to attack faster than humans.
Q42) What is meant by Botnet?
Answer: A botnet is a network of Bots (compromised targets of a hacker) which will be used as a source for Dos or DDos attacks.
Q43) Define Brute force attack.
Answer: A brute force attack is normally used to guess username or password by the way of trying all the possible combinations of alphabets, numbers and special characters.
Q44) Define Buffer Overflow attack.
Answer: Buffer Overflow is an error which is occurred when the size of data injected to the buffer is greater than the allocated buffer size.
Q45) Who is a Cracker?
Answer: A cracker is a hacker who modifies the software to gain access to some or all of the features which are available in different paid/licensed versions leading to software piracy.
Q46) What is meant by Denial of service attack (DoS)?
Answer: This attack is an offensive attempt to make a server or a network device to deny its service (say HTTP/HTTPS) to the legitimate users, by flooding a huge wave of traffic to it.
Q47) What is meant by distributed denial of service attack (DDoS)?
Answer: DDoS attack is the Distributed form of DoS performed by using Botnets or Trojans from different regions.
Q48) What is a Firewall?
Answer: Firewall is a software program or a hardware device that basically acts as a filter to configure rules which allows or denies the desired traffic by the way of protecting the organizations perimeter from outside attacks.
Q49) What is meant by Social engineering?
Answer: Social engineering is the practice of tricking someone with the determination of gaining personal and sensitive information, like usernames and passwords or credit card details.
Q50) What is a Spam?
Answer: A Spam is unintended information or Ads or marketing messages which are sent as email or SMS to a large number of users without their consent.
Q51) What is meant by Spoofing?
Answer: Spoofing is the process of imitating a trusted/authorized host or a device by an unauthorized attacker to send or receive from or to the target systems.
Q52) What is meant by SQL Injection?
Answer: SQL injection is a technique or attack which uses malicious inputs to bypass a query which can be username or password or any input which uses SQL statements to query the database.
Q53) Define Cross-site Scripting.
Answer: Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of web applications vulnerability which makes the attackers to inject client-side script into a compromised web site viewed by the users.
Q54) Define Trojan.
Answer: A Trojan, or Trojan Horse is malware injected or modified inside a legitimate program or software which are available in unauthorized internet sources.
Q55) What is a Backdoor Trojan?
Answer: These Trojans create backdoor on a computer. This makes an attacker to gain access the computer and operate it remotely. The data can be uploaded from the target host to any public sites or sold in black markets. Or more malware can be uploaded to your device.
Q56) What is meant by Fake AV Trojan?
Answer: These Trojans behave like antivirus software and request users to pay money to detect and remove viruses which may be real or fake.
Q57) What is a Game-thief Trojan?
Answer: The target of these Trojans may be online gamers. These Trojans steal the account information and payment card information of the fellow gamers.
Q58) Define Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Trojans.
Answer: This Trojan executes DDoS attacks. The aim is to bring down a network or system or service by flooding it with a large amount of traffic which cannot be handled by the target from different Trojan sources.
Q59) What is a Remote Access Trojan?
Answer: These type of Trojans enables the attacker to gain elevated access to the compromised targets to control it remotely and to spy using it.
Q60) What is an Infostealer Trojan?
Answer: These Trojans are used to steal personal and valuable information from the compromised hosts.
Q61) What is a Ransom Trojan?
Answer: This Trojan is designed in such a way that it lock or encrypts important or all the files available in the file system and demands a ransom of money to unlock or decrypt it.
Q62) What is a Mailfinder Trojan?
Answer: This Trojan finds and steals the emails stored anywhere in your computer even though the keyloggers. They are intended to sell those email ids to digital marketers or spammers.
Q63) What is a Downloader Trojan?
Answer: This type of Trojans target compromised or infected computers to download and install a new malware or it updates of the already available malware and adware with their newer versions.
Q64) What is meant by scanning?
Answer: Scanning is the process of identifying IPs of Hosts in the network, it’s corresponding open TCP/UDP ports, protocol version, OS details etc., using some tools.
Q65) What are the types of Scanning?
- Network Scanning
- Port Scanning
- Vulnerability Scanning
Q66) List any tools used for hacking?
- Burp Suite
Q67) List common DoS Attacks?
- SYN Flooding
- ICMP Flooding
- Buffer Overflow
- Smurf Attack
Q68) What are the different types of spoofing attacks?
- ARP Spoofing
- IP Spoofing
- DNS Spoofing
Q69) What is a crypto miner?
Answer: Cryptominer is a malware which mines cryptocurrency. It is a malware which is created to use or steal a computer’s hardware resources of the target or infected system for cryptocurrency mining without any prior knowledge of the user.
Q70) Types of Hackers?
Answer: White hat, Black hat, Grey hat
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Q71) Differnece Between Vulnerability and Exploit?
Answer: Vulnerability is the weakness in the system, Exploit is successful attack using the vulnerability
Q72) What is Encryption?
Answer: Process of converting human-readable content to unreadable junk values using special keys
Q73) What is Encoding?
Answer: Process of converting human-readable content to unreadable junk values using a special algorithm
Q74) What are the steps in hacking?
- Information gathering
- Covering Tracks
Q75) What is DOS attack?
Answer: This attack is used to make the network/system resource not available to the service provider or user
Q76) What is spoofing?
Answer: Spoofing is nothing but pretending to be a system within a network of systems
Q77) What is sniffing?
Answer: Sniffing a process of monitoring the network traffic without the knowledge of the actual user
Q78) What is the difference between encryption and hashing?
Encryption Hashing Encryption is reversible Hashing is irreversible Encryption ensures confidentiality Hashing ensures Integrity
Q79) What is CIA Triangle?
- Confidentiality : Keeping the information secret.
- Integrity : Keeping the information unaltered.
- Availability: Information is available to the authorized parties at all times
Q80) What is the difference between VA and PT?
Vulnerability Assessment Penetration Testing Vulnerability Assessment is an approach used to find flaws in an application/network It is the practice of finding exploitable vulnerabilities like a real attacker will do
Q81) What are SQL injection and its types?
- Blind SQL injection
- Time-based SQL injection
- Error-based SQL injection
- ARP Spoofing Attack.
- DNS Spoofing Attack.
- IP Spoofing Attack.
Q82) What is PGP?
Answer: PGP is pretty good privacy used for email security
Q83) What is port 20, 21 used for?
Answer: File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Q84) What is STRIDE?
Answer: Spoofing, Tampering, Reputation, Information Disclosure, Denial of Service, Elevation of Privilege.
Q85) What is a Sniffing attack?
Answer: Sniffing is a procedure used by hackers to monitor and capture all the network packets with the help of sniffing tools. For example, this process is similar to tapping a phone call and listening to the ongoing conversation.
Q85) What are the benefits and drawbacks of hacking?
- Used for foiling the security attacks.
- It helps to prevent any type of data theft.
- Easy to plug the loopholes and bugs.
- It prevents any type of malicious attack.
- A lot of massive security issues are created.
- It includes stealing valuable and private information from users.
- You have to violate a lot of privacy regulations to perform hacking.
- Accessing the system in an unauthorized way.
Q86) Mention the type of hackers?
Answer: There are three various types of hackers when divided based on the legality and motive of actions
- Black Hat: This type of hackers create auspicious malware and gain access in an unauthorized way to the network or system. They steal private and valuable information from the network or computer by harming its operations.
- White Hat: This type of hackers are otherwise called in the name of ethical hackers. Individuals, government agencies, or companies employ them to identify the vulnerabilities. They don’t harm the system but identify the weakness in the system or network as part of vulnerability assessments and penetration testing.
- Grey Hat: Combination of black hat and white hat is the grey hat hackers. They identify the system vulnerability without the permission or knowledge of the owner. The only goal of grey hat hackers is to make a weakness in the system or network and take it to the attention of the owner. They then demand or threat them for some incentive or compensation from the owner.
There are also some other types of hackers namely
- Elite Hackers
- Blue hat
- Script kiddie
- Red hat
Q89) Mention some of the hacking types in detail?
Answer: There are different types of hacking namely
- Network hacking: In this type of hacking, hackers gather data about computers or networks with the help of tools like ping, Telnet, etc. They harm the operations of the system or networks and then block its operations.
- Password hacking: In this hacking, the hackers recovers all secret passwords from the information stored in the network or computer.
- Website hacking: the hackers access the web servicer, their interfaces, databases, and other relevant software in an unauthorized way and make few changes to the data.
- Computer hacking: In this type of hacking, hackers access the network or system in an unauthorized way and steal the computer ID, password, and other data through different hacking techniques.
- Email hacking: In this type of hacking, hackers access the email account of the owner in an unauthorized way.
Q90) What are the stages of hacking?
Answer: There are five phases in the hacking process namely
- Reconnaissance: The primary process in which the hackers try to gather all data about the targeted system or network.
- Scanning: The data collected during the primary phase is used to identify and examine the targeted network or system. The hacker makes use of automated tools like vulnerability scanners, mappers, and port scanners in this scanning phase.
- Obtaining access: The phase of real hacking is gaining access. The hackers try to identify the vulnerabilities determined in the primary phase and scanning phase to acquire access.
- Maintaining access: Once the access is obtained, the hackers store them for future exploitation. They use trojans, rootkits, and backdoors to secure their access.
- Covering tracks: after gaining and maintaining access, the hackers carefully cover their traces and tracks to avoid finding them. It enables them to avoid legal actions and continue using the hacked system.
Q91) What is scanning and their types?
Answer: Scanning is a collection of procedures for detecting the services, ports, and hosts attached to a system or network. It is one of the important components for gathering data. It enables the hacker to make a profile on the organization’s website to be hacked. There are three different types of scanning namely
- Vulnerability scanning
- Port scanning
- Network scanning
Q92) Mention the difference between Mac and IP addresses?
- MAC address – MAC stands for Machine Access Control, it’s one of the serial number provided to all interface in a network on every device. The serial number stays unique for each device. It can be compared to your physical mailbox.
- IP address: Every device is allocated with an IP address so that it’s easy to locate them on any network. Ip address is compared to the postal address.
Q93) What do you mean by footprinting?
Answer: Footprinting means uncovering or collecting all data about the targeted system or network before trying to acquire access.
Q94) Mention the hacking techniques used in footprinting?
- Open source footprinting: in this type of technique, the hackers search for the contact information of the admin. It’s used later for identifying the right passwords in social engineering.
- Network enumeration: In this type of technique, the hacker tries to find out the network blocks and domain names of the targeted system or network.
- Scanning: once the network is identified, the hacker spy on the targeted network or system active IP address.
- Stack Fingerprinting: The last footprinting technique which is used once the host and port are mapped with each other.
Q94) What do you mean by network sniffing?
Answer: The term used when the user needs to analyze the data packets that flow over the computer system or network or when the users require to activate the real-time monitoring. Hackers utilize sniffing tools and use them as unethical and ethical needs. It is used for managing different networks as well as to steal the targeted network or system information.
Q95) How can a network sniffing used for ethical and unethical purposes?
Answer: The network administrator makes use of the sniffers as an analysis and network monitoring tool. When it comes to unethical usage, it’s used by cybercriminals for identifying the targeted computer or system email, usurpation, and for sensitive data hijacking.
Q96) What do you mean by the DOS attack?
Answer: DOS stands for Denial of Service, it’s a malicious network conducted on a system or network. It’s executed by network flooding with tons of traffic that is of no use. The attack is not a serious threat to security breaches or information but it can cost a large amount of time and money to the website owner.
Q97) What are the different forms of DOS attacks?
Answer: The DOS attack can be a
- SYN attack
- Smurf attack
- Buffer overflow attack
- Teardrop attack
Q98) What are the programming languages used for hacking?
Q99) What are the programs used for hacking?
- Metasploit by Rapid7
- Cain and Able hacking software
- Hydra hacking software
- Nessus vulnerability scanner
- Kali Linux penetration software.
Q100) Mention different hacking attack types?
- Denial of Service
- Fake WAP
- Clickjacking attacks
- Waterhole attacks
- Virus, Trojan, and more.
Q101) What is the operating system that is commonly used for hacking?
- Parrot Security OS
- Samurai web testing framework
- DEFT Linux
- Network Security Toolkit
- Kali Linux
- Pentoo Linux
Q102) Mention a few of the cyber attacks?
- Denial of Service attacks
- Drive-by downloads
- Rogue software
- Password attacks
- Main in the Middle
Q103) How can you stay protected from hackers?
Answer: There are some steps you can take for protecting your network or system from hacking. Some of them include
- Formating your device or system that you are going to sell.
- Making use of tough and memorable security answers
- By not keeping the sensitive and valuable data on the cloud.
- Updating each time your operating system when there are new security updates.
- Having a strong password for your Wi-Fi
- Every time you make use of the trusted source when emailing or replying them.
Q104) What do you mean by CIA Triangle?
Answer: It’s the model of making use of the organization’s information security policies. CTA stands for
- Confidentiality: maintaining the data in a secret way.
- Integrity: not changing your data often.
- Availability: Making sure about the data available to authorized users.
Q105) What do you mean by MIB?
Answer: MIB stands for Management Information Base. It’s the network’s hierarchical virtual database that holds every data regarding the objects in the network. It’s used by remote monitoring 1 and SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol).
Q106) What do you mean by SNMP?
Answer: SNMP Stands for Simple Network Management Protocol and Simple Transmission Control or Internet protocol. It’s used for managing routers, hosts, other network devices, and also for remote monitoring.
Q107) Mention some of the sniffing tools?
- MSN Sniffer
- PRTG Network Monitor
- Steel Central Packer Analyzer
Q108) Mention some of the password cracking techniques?
- Brute forcing attacks
- Syllable attacks
- Rainbow table attacks
- Shoulder surfing
- Dictionary attacks
- Hybrid attacks
- Rule-based attacks
- Social Engineering
Q109) What do you mean by Port scanning in ethical hacking?
Answer: Port scanning is one of the techniques used in reconnaissance. It’s used to identify the vulnerabilities and threats which are exploited by hackers.
Q110) What is the difference between computer hacking and ethical hacking?
- Computer hacking: it means breaking into other networks or systems to steal commercial and personal gains. Grey hat hackers are one of them who does computer hacking.
- Ethical hacking: It’s a methodology used to identify the vulnerabilities or threats in any network or system. White hat hackers do ethical hacking.
Q111) What do you mean by Firewall?
Answer: It’s one of the network security systems which blocks or enables the traffic in the network based on the security rules. Firewalls are placed on the line of untrusted and trusted networks.
Q112) What are trojans and mention their types?
Answer: A trojan is a malware developed by attackers or hackers to gain access to the targeted systems. Some of the types of trojans include
- Trojan downloader
- Trojan droppers
- Trojan banker
- Trojan rootkits
- Trojans backdoor
Q113) What is the various enumeration in ethical hacking?
- NTP enumeration
- Linux/Windows enumeration
- DNS enumeration
- SNMP enumeration
- SMB enumeration