A microprocessor is a electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single (or more) integrated circuit (IC) of MOSFET construction. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory and provides results (also in binary form) as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary number system.
Components of Microprocessor are:
- The control unit is used to control the instructions and it generates the signals to operate the other components.
- ALU (arithmetic logic unit) performs both arithmetic and logical operations. Arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplications, divisions, and logical operations such as NOR, AND, NAND, OR, XOR, NOT, XNOR, etc.
- Input-output devices are used to transfer data between microcomputers and external devices.
- The register array consists of registers. Registers that are used by the programmer to store arbitrary data are known as general-purpose registers and the registers which are not used by a programmer to store the data are known as the reserved registers. The length of the register is known as the word length of the computer.